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微笑为何会成为人类的友好举动钱柜娱乐777手机客户端英文阅读网

作者:www.ruishiye.com  时间:2017-07-30
 
     
      Anthony Stocks, chairman and professor of anthropology1 at Idaho State University, responds:"The evolution of smiles is opaque2 and, as with many evolutionary3 of social behavior, fraught4-soism. Among human babies, however, the 'tooth-baring' smile is associated less with friendship than with fright--which, one might argue, is related to the tooth-baring threats of baboons5. On the other hand, a non-toothy, not-so-broad-but-open-lipped smile is associated with pleasure in human infants. Somehow we seem to have taken the fright-threat sort of smile and extended it to strangers as a presumably friendly smile. Maybe it is not as innocent as it seems."All cultures recognize a variety of mouth gestures as indexes of inner emotional states. As in our own culture, however, in many varieties, not all of them interpreted as friendly."Frank McAndrew, professor of psychology6 at Knox College in Galesburg, Ill., has done extensive research on facial expressions. He answers as follows:"Baring one's teeth is not always a threat. In primates7, showing the teeth, especially teeth held together, is almost always a sign of submission9. The human smile probably has evolved from that."In the primate8 threat, the lips are curled back and the teeth are apart--you are ready to bite. But if the teeth are pressed together and the lips are relaxed, with other facial features, such as what you do with your eyes, to express a whole range of feelings. In a lot of human smiling, it is something you do in public, but it does not reflect true 'friendly' feelings--think of politicians smiling for photographers."What is especially interesting is that you do not have to learn to do any of this--it is preprogrammed behavior. Kids who are born blind never see anybody smile, but they show the same kinds of smiles under the same situations as sighted people."M on this topic:'Non-#39; Edited by R. A. Hinde. Cambridge University Press, 1972.'Emotion: A Psychoevolutionary Synthesis.' Robert Plutchik. Harper and Row, 1980.'Emotion in the Human Face.' Second edition. Edited by Paul Ekman. Cambridge University Press, 1982
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